U.S.A.

Cross-Cultural Color-Odor Associations

Color congruence for each odor in each culture. Colors per odorant (fruity, flower, candy, woody, hazelnut, musty, rice, soap, vinegar, burnt, vegetable, fish, meat, plastic) per country (Dutch, NL. Res. Chinese, German, Malay, Mal. Chinese, US) are ordered by frequency (most frequent are shown lowest on their respective y-axis). Frequency is represented by the height of each color box; the box on the right of the figure shows the height a given box must be for there to be 10, 9, 8 etc. ratings of that color for a given odorant. Boxes have been given a slight shadow to help with the perception of harder to see light colors. The background bars are only colored to help with reading the figure.
(Levitan, et al., 2014)

Defeat, battle, thief, crime, and danger, cultural differences in concept allocation

Some of the differences in concept allocation are suggestive of real culture differences; for example: concepts like defeat, battle, thief, crime, and danger are all bad-strong-active (Osgood’s 3-factors) for Americans, Belgians, and Finns, but for the Japanese defeat, thief, crime, and danger are bad-weak-passive and battle is good-weak-active.

Osgood (1964)

Friend and man, cultural differences in concept allocation

Some of the differences in concept allocation are suggestive of real culture differences; for example: both friend and man are good-strong-active (Osgood’s 3-factors) for Americans and Japanese, but passive for the Flemish and weak for the Finns.

Osgood (1964)

Future, cultural differences in concept allocation

Some of the differences in concept allocation are suggestive of real culture differences; for example: future is good-strong-active (Osgood’s 3-factors) for all countries (U.S.A., Japan, India, Netherlands, Belgium, France, Lebanon, Sweden, Hong Kong, Iran, Afghanistan, Yugoslavia, Poland) except Finnish, where it is good, but weak and passive.

Osgood (1964)

Mother and father, cultural differences in concept allocation

Some of the differences in concept allocation are suggestive of real culture differences; for example: both mother and father are good-strong-passive (Osgood’s 3-factors) for Americans and Flemish, and are both good-strong-active for Japanese, but father is good-strong-active and mother is good-strong-passive for the Finns.

Osgood (1964)

Policeman, cultural differences in concept allocation

Some of the differences in concept allocation are suggestive of real culture differences; for example: only for Americans is policeman good-strong-active (Osgood’s 3-factors), being bad-strong-passive for the Flemish and bad-strong-active for the Japanese.

Osgood (1964)

Power, cultural differences in concept allocation

Some of the differences in concept allocation are suggestive of real culture differences; for example: power is good-strong-active (Osgood’s 3-factors) for both Americans and Flemish speakers, but it becomes passive for Finns, and turns both bad and weak (but still active) for Japanese.

Osgood (1964)

Progress, cultural differences in concept allocation

Some of the differences in concept allocation are suggestive of real culture differences; for example: progress is good-strong-active (Osgood’s 3-factors) for all countries (U.S.A., Japan, India, Netherlands, Belgium, France, Lebanon, Sweden, Hong Kong, Iran, Afghanistan, Yugoslavia, Poland) except Finnish, where it is passive.

Osgood (1964)

Work, cultural differences in concept allocation

Some of the differences in concept allocation are suggestive of real culture differences; for example: work is good-strong-active (Osgood’s 3-factors) for all countries (U.S.A., Japan, India, Netherlands, France, Lebanon, Sweden, Hong Kong, Iran, Afghanistan, Finland, Yugoslavia, Poland) except Flemish, where it is bad, strong and passive.

Osgood (1964)