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  • Circumplex model of core affect with product relevant emotions

    Desmet, 2007; adapted from Russell, 1980.

    Note from the DSD editorial: The eight core affects that are brought together according to two dimensions of emotion: Arousal and Valence, can be divided over the eight primary colour codes according to the method of the Semantic Colour Space. If we assume that the semantic depth dimension corresponds to Valence, and the breadth to Arousal, the following connections may be laid:
    (V-,A-) boredom, sadness, isolation: code 010 or 000, green or blue.
    (V-,A0) disappointment, contempt, jealousy: code 000 or 010, blue or green.
    (V-,A+) alarm, disgust, irritation: code 001 or 011, black or purple.
    (V0,A+) astonishment, eagerness, curiosity: code 011 or 111, purple or yellow.
    (V+,A-) satisfaction, softened, relaxed: code 100 or 110, brown or white.
    (V0,A-) awaiting, deferent, calm: code 110 or 010, white or green.
    (V+,A0) admiration, fascination, joyfulness: code 111 or 101, yellow or red.
    (V+,A+) inspiration, desire, love: code 101 or 111, red or yellow.

    The height dimension, with dominance as the emotional 3rd dimension, was not applied in Desmet and Hekkert’s research.

  • Brown interior
    Joe Mabel, CC BY 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

    Living room of Lochkelden (also known as the Denny Mansion), Windermere, Seattle, Washington, U.S. This was the home of Seattle banker Rolland Denny.

  • Brown and food

    Brown is the colour of the strongest aroma. Roast meat is brown, baked dough and coffee, beer and chocolate are brown. It is the colour of the prepared and refined food. Brown is a colour that is rich in content. When light brown foods such as white bread and macaroni have a darker colour, they appear richer in calories. When you pay attention to calories, dark cake is more dangerous than light cake. Eggs with a brown shell appear to have a fuller taste than white ones. (Heller, 1989)

  • Protective and cozy interior

    As a colour for interior, brown appears positive. It is the colour of rustic materials such as wood, leather and unbleached wool. Although spaces with brown furniture and carpets appear smaller, they also provide a sense of security. Brown rooms are experienced as cozy because brown provides the ideal climate indoors. It is the colour that belongs to the heat without being hot. (Heller, 1989)

  • ‘laziness’ and colour in Germany

    Laziness: brown 42%, grey 22%, black 10%, … (Heller, 1989).

  • ‘Gourmandise, excess’ and colour in Germany

    Gormandize/excess: Brown 22%, orange 14%, purple 13%, …

    Heller (1989).

  • ‘Easy-going’ and colour in Germany

    Easy-going: brown 39%, …
    Heller (1989)

  • ‘Conservative’ and colour in Germany

    Conservative: black 40%, brown 28%, …
    Heller (1989)

  • The colour of ‘old’ in 9 countries


    All countries: dark and brown colours.
    Jung et al. (2018)

  • Blue hour

    The ‘blue hour’ is popular in America and England. It is the hour after the end of the work, the time of relaxation. … Blue is the withdrawn, self-satisfied aspect of relaxation.
    Heller (1989)