- Book of Changes, first semantic lexicon
Semanticus F. Alpaerts suggests in De Denkbeeldige Ruimte (1980) that the I Ching or Book of Changes, originating from mythical antiquity, is the first semantic lexicon of mankind. In this Chinese classic, unquestionably one of the most influential books in the world’s literature, 64 chapters are coded with a double triplet line code called hexagrams.
Alpaerts used the Wilhelm (1971) translation to show a possible connection between the code lines from the I Ching and the codon encoding in the Semantic Colour Space. The open (- -) and closed (—) lines from the I Ching correspond with respectively the 0’s and 1’s from his semantic coding system. This way he could associate the concepts described in the 64 chapters of the I Ching, with the eight primary colours and their combinations (8×8) from his classification. Later, his hypothesis was confirmed by a comparative research he conducted on the similarities between his keyword-colour classifications, in which the concepts from the I Ching form an important part, and the empirical data from sociologist Eva Heller’s word-to-colour association study (Alpaerts, 1993).
The following list includes I Ching chapter titles with links to pages in the DSD (between brackets: if the title is not in the DSD, a synonym), chapter numbers, digital coding (hexagram), and colour combinations.
chapter title chapters hexagram colour combination creative heaven 1 111:111 YL:YL the receptive 2 000:000 BL:BL difficulty at the beginning 3 010:001 GR:BK youthful folly (inexperienced, foolish) 4 100:010 BR:GR waiting 5 010:111 GR:YL the fight 6 111:010 YL:GR the army 7 000:010 BL:GR the all-encompassing 8 010:000 GR:BL the taming power of the small (newborn) 9 110:111 WH:YL performing 10 111:011 YL:PL peace 11 000:111 BL:YL standstill (stagnation, blocking) 12 111:000 YL:BL fellowship with men (together, community) 13 111:101 YL:RD great possessing (imperium) 14 101:111 RD:YL humbling 15 000:100 BL:BR rage (rancor, attack) 16 001:000 BK:BL pursue 17 011:001 PS:BK correcting (addressing) 18 100:110 BR:WH nearing, rapprochement 19 000:011 BL:PL viewing (perception) 20 110:000 WH:BL biting through (stick-it-out) 21 101:001 RD:BK adorning (embellish) 22 100:101 BR:RD splitting apart (slivering) 23 100:000 BR:BL the turning point 24 000:001 BL:BK innocence 25 111:001 YL:BK the taming power of the great (steering) 26 100:111 BR:YL the corners of the mouth, providing nourishment (feeding, grooming, open mouth) 27 100:001 BR:BK great exceeding (overloaded) 28 011:110 PL:WH the abyss 29 010:010 GR:GR the clinging, fire (flame, attach) 30 101:101 RD:RD influence, wooing (courtship) 31 011:100 PL:BR duration, constancy 32 001:110 BK:WH retreat 33 111:100 YL:BR the power of the great (powerful) 34 001:111 BK:YL progress 35 101:000 RD:BL darkening of the Light (hiding) 36 000:101 BL:RD family 37 110:101 WH:RD polarising (contrasts) 38 101:011 RD:PL obstruction 39 010:100 GR:BR liberation 40 001:010 BK:GR reduction 41 100:011 BR:PL increase, beneficial, useful (growth, functional) 42 110:001 WH:BK resoluteness, determination 43 011:111 PL:YL meeting 44 111:110 YL:WH gathering together, massing (assemble) 45 011:000 PL:BL pushing upward 46 000:110 BL:WH oppression, exhaustion (depletion, sucked out) 47 011:010 PL:GR the well 48 010:110 GR:WH revolution, moulting 49 011:101 PL:RD the cauldron (terrine) 50 101:110 RD:WH the arousing, shock, thunder 51 001:001 BK:BK keeping still, mountain (still, not moving) 52 100:100 BR:BR development, gradual progress 53 110:100 WH:BR the marrying maiden (concubine) 54 001:011 BK:PL abundance, fullness 55 001:101 BK:RD the wanderer, travelling (wanderlust) 56 101:100 RD:BR the penetrating, wind 57 110:110 WH:WH the joyous, lake (gay) 58 011:011 PL:PL dispersion, dissolution, (scattering) 59 110:010 WH:GR limitation, moderation (delimitation, restriction) 60 010:011 GR:PL inner truth 61 110:011 WH:PL preponderance of the small (unremarkable, incompetent) 62 001:100 BK:BR after completion 63 010:101 GR:RD before completion 64 101:010 RD:GR
- ‘Businesslike’ and colour in Germany
Businesslike: white 27%, grey 22%, blue 20%, black 15%, …
- Past and future in shape
Angularity, as with a square stone, is a characteristic of the past versus roundness, the wheel, as a symbol of the future.
The modernist architecture of the last century (1930-1960) was an architectural movement or architectural style based upon a functionalist idea with an embrace of minimalism and a rejection of ornament. The use of round shapes was a style characteristic. It was a radical break with the past and a view to the future.
De La Warr Pavilion, Bexhill. 1935, Architect/Designer: Mendelsohn & Chermayeff. Source: http://flickr.com/photo/53921762@N00/1986171763
In images depicting the future, futuristic planes etc. the artists show a preference for round shapes.
Artist Tim Hildebrandt painted the rounded buildings of his future city yellow. Underneath the future he draws the angular past in a roman temple architecture. The man in the foreground points to the right, where the future lies.
(Michiels, I. editorial)