- Universal Patterns in Color-Emotion Associations
Many of us “see red,” “feel blue,” or “turn green with envy.” Are such color-emotion associations fundamental to our shared cognitive architecture, or are they cultural creations learned through our languages and traditions? To answer these questions, we tested emotional associations of colors in 4,598 participants from 30 nations speaking 22 native languages. Participants associated 20 emotion concepts with 12 color terms. Pattern-similarity analyses revealed universal color-emotion associations (average similarity coefficient r = .88). However, local differences were also apparent. A machine-learning algorithm revealed that nation predicted color-emotion associations above and beyond those observed universally. Similarity was greater when nations were linguistically or geographically close. This study highlights robust universal color-emotion associations, further modulated by linguistic and geographic factors. These results pose further theoretical and empirical questions about the affective properties of color and may inform practice in applied domains, such as well-being and design.
Jonauskaite et al. (2020).
- Right turn kissing, link to emotionality
When leaning forward to kiss to a romantic partner, individuals tend to direct their kiss to the right more often than the left. When kissing friends and family, most people lean to the left. Studies were administered in countries with official languages in English (Italy, Canada), Hebrew (Israel), and Arabic (Palestine). They have consistently demonstrated this kissing asymmetry. As for why romantic couples tend to kiss to the right, the researchers think previous research into brain function might hold the answer. Couples entering into new romantic relationships show heightened activity on the left side of their brains, which might guide them to make more rightward kisses. Our brain is split in two: a left and a right hemisphere. Activity in one hemisphere often makes us move in the opposite direction. The emotional center is in the left hemisphere. The stronger your feelings, the more you will move to the right. (Sedgewick & Elias, 2016)
- Proverbs and sayings: open-closed
Lakoff and Johnson (1999) saw that there are many proverbs and sayings that have to do with form characteristics and emotions. Open / empty / bald: honest, neat, welcome, hospitable, logical, poor, soft. Closed: unfair, messy, meaningless.
- Emotionality according to Eysenck
The second dimension is called emotionality, or concern, or lack of adjustment, or imbalance, or neuroticism, and there are even other names. This dimension consists of character traits: low self-esteem, unhappiness, worries, obsessiveness, lack of autonomy, melancholy and feelings of guilt.
Eysenck, H. J. (1998)