- Book of Changes, first semantic lexicon
Semanticus F. Alpaerts suggests in De Denkbeeldige Ruimte (1980) that the I Ching or Book of Changes, originating from mythical antiquity, is the first semantic lexicon of mankind. In this Chinese classic, unquestionably one of the most influential books in the world’s literature, 64 chapters are coded with a double triplet line code called hexagrams.
Alpaerts used the Wilhelm (1971) translation to show a possible connection between the code lines from the I Ching and the codon encoding in the Semantic Colour Space. The open (- -) and closed (—) lines from the I Ching correspond with respectively the 0’s and 1’s from his semantic coding system. This way he could associate the concepts described in the 64 chapters of the I Ching, with the eight primary colours and their combinations (8×8) from his classification. Later, his hypothesis was confirmed by a comparative research he conducted on the similarities between his keyword-colour classifications, in which the concepts from the I Ching form an important part, and the empirical data from sociologist Eva Heller’s word-to-colour association study (Alpaerts, 1993).
The following list includes I Ching chapter titles with links to pages in the DSD (between brackets: if the title is not in the DSD, a synonym), chapter numbers, digital coding (hexagram), and colour combinations.
chapter title chapters hexagram colour combination creative heaven 1 111:111 YL:YL the receptive 2 000:000 BL:BL difficulty at the beginning 3 010:001 GR:BK youthful folly (inexperienced, foolish) 4 100:010 BR:GR waiting 5 010:111 GR:YL the fight 6 111:010 YL:GR the army 7 000:010 BL:GR the all-encompassing 8 010:000 GR:BL the taming power of the small (newborn) 9 110:111 WH:YL performing 10 111:011 YL:PL peace 11 000:111 BL:YL standstill (stagnation, blocking) 12 111:000 YL:BL fellowship with men (together, community) 13 111:101 YL:RD great possessing (imperium) 14 101:111 RD:YL humbling 15 000:100 BL:BR rage (rancor, attack) 16 001:000 BK:BL pursue 17 011:001 PS:BK correcting (addressing) 18 100:110 BR:WH nearing, rapprochement 19 000:011 BL:PL viewing (perception) 20 110:000 WH:BL biting through (stick-it-out) 21 101:001 RD:BK adorning (embellish) 22 100:101 BR:RD splitting apart (slivering) 23 100:000 BR:BL the turning point 24 000:001 BL:BK innocence 25 111:001 YL:BK the taming power of the great (steering) 26 100:111 BR:YL the corners of the mouth, providing nourishment (feeding, grooming, open mouth) 27 100:001 BR:BK great exceeding (overloaded) 28 011:110 PL:WH the abyss 29 010:010 GR:GR the clinging, fire (flame, attach) 30 101:101 RD:RD influence, wooing (courtship) 31 011:100 PL:BR duration, constancy 32 001:110 BK:WH retreat 33 111:100 YL:BR the power of the great (powerful) 34 001:111 BK:YL progress 35 101:000 RD:BL darkening of the Light (hiding) 36 000:101 BL:RD family 37 110:101 WH:RD polarising (contrasts) 38 101:011 RD:PL obstruction 39 010:100 GR:BR liberation 40 001:010 BK:GR reduction 41 100:011 BR:PL increase, beneficial, useful (growth, functional) 42 110:001 WH:BK resoluteness, determination 43 011:111 PL:YL meeting 44 111:110 YL:WH gathering together, massing (assemble) 45 011:000 PL:BL pushing upward 46 000:110 BL:WH oppression, exhaustion (depletion, sucked out) 47 011:010 PL:GR the well 48 010:110 GR:WH revolution, moulting 49 011:101 PL:RD the cauldron (terrine) 50 101:110 RD:WH the arousing, shock, thunder 51 001:001 BK:BK keeping still, mountain (still, not moving) 52 100:100 BR:BR development, gradual progress 53 110:100 WH:BR the marrying maiden (concubine) 54 001:011 BK:PL abundance, fullness 55 001:101 BK:RD the wanderer, travelling (wanderlust) 56 101:100 RD:BR the penetrating, wind 57 110:110 WH:WH the joyous, lake (gay) 58 011:011 PL:PL dispersion, dissolution, (scattering) 59 110:010 WH:GR limitation, moderation (delimitation, restriction) 60 010:011 GR:PL inner truth 61 110:011 WH:PL preponderance of the small (unremarkable, incompetent) 62 001:100 BK:BR after completion 63 010:101 GR:RD before completion 64 101:010 RD:GR
- Universal Patterns in Color-Emotion Associations
Many of us “see red,” “feel blue,” or “turn green with envy.” Are such color-emotion associations fundamental to our shared cognitive architecture, or are they cultural creations learned through our languages and traditions? To answer these questions, we tested emotional associations of colors in 4,598 participants from 30 nations speaking 22 native languages. Participants associated 20 emotion concepts with 12 color terms. Pattern-similarity analyses revealed universal color-emotion associations (average similarity coefficient r = .88). However, local differences were also apparent. A machine-learning algorithm revealed that nation predicted color-emotion associations above and beyond those observed universally. Similarity was greater when nations were linguistically or geographically close. This study highlights robust universal color-emotion associations, further modulated by linguistic and geographic factors. These results pose further theoretical and empirical questions about the affective properties of color and may inform practice in applied domains, such as well-being and design.
Jonauskaite et al. (2020).
- Bling bling style
Doeshun, Southern Rap Artist From Atlanta Georgia.
- Resurrection from death
- The lamb triumphs over death
Because of its touching innocence, the young sheep is a symbol of purity and innocence. The image of the divine shepherd leading his people like a flock, along with that of the servant of God being led to the slaughter like a sacrificial lamb (Isaiah 53:7), yielded the New Testament image of the Good Shepherd Jesus in search of lost lambs. In John (1:29), John the Baptist calls Jesus “the Lamb of God who takes away the sins of the world.” In the Apocalypse (14:1) there is mention of the victorious lamb. In the west, the triumphant paschal lamb with the banner of victory over death is a beloved symbol of the resurrection. The sacrificial lamb is also a symbol of martyrdom, for example as a lamb in the midst of wolves. (Biederman, 1992)
- innocent sheep
The sheep is generally regarded as a silly and innocent animal, which is a willing prey for the wolf. The sheep, one of mankind’s oldest domestic animals, had to be herded by shepherds and became a symbol of naivety and helplessness in the face of any enemy. The lamb also often figures as a striking symbol of innocence, which ultimately triumphs over the devil.
Biederman, H. (1992)
- Proverbs and sayings: open-closed
Lakoff and Johnson (1999) saw that there are many proverbs and sayings that have to do with form characteristics and emotions. Open / empty / bald: honest, neat, welcome, hospitable, logical, poor, soft. Closed: unfair, messy, meaningless.
- ‘Extrovert’ and colour in Germany
Extrovert: yellow 24%, gold 24%, orange 19%, red 14%, …
- ‘Extravagance’ and colour in Germany
Extravagance: purple 30%, gold 21%, silver 15%, …
- ‘Expensive’ and colour in Germany
Expensive: gold 61%, silver 15%, black 10%, …