The image of the thunder cloud shows two important aspects of the black concept. There is the shock caused by the thunder. The full heavy cloud simultaneously provides darkness, covering or shielding.

The black shock sounds like a loud blast. The shock arises when a taboo is broken, such as the hostile violation of rules, the conscienceless of a violent act or a sudden death. The corresponding movement is punching with the feet. The shame is covered and made invisible. The shock at the same time gives rise to a roar of laughter.

On the other hand, a hard cover can provide protection. Psychologically and emotionally it is about dominance and control, with freedom and autonomy as a result.





‘Age’ and colour in Germany

Age: grey 32%, black 22%, brown 20%, …
Heller (1989)

‘Agressivity’ and colour in Germany

Agressivity: red 50%, black 10%, yellow 10%, …
Heller (1989)

‘Anger’ and colour in Germany

Anger: red 55%, black 15%, …
Heller (1989)

‘Angulated’ and colour in Germany

Angulated: grey 18%, black 18%, silver 15%, ….
Heller (1989)

‘bad’ and colour in Germany

Bad: black 43%, brown 22%, grey 13%, …
Heller (1989)

‘Bravery’ and colour in Germany

Bravery: blue 25%, red 19%, black 14%, gold 7%, yellow 7% …
Heller E. (1989)

‘Brutality’ and colour in Germany

Brutality: black 41%, red 24%, brown 18%, …
Heller (1989)

‘Businesslike’ and colour in Germany

Businesslike: white 27%, grey 22%, blue 20%, black 15%, …
Heller (1989)

‘Concentration’ and colour in Germany

Concentration: blue 19%, white 19%, black 13%, …
Heller (1989)

‘Conservative’ and colour in Germany

Conservative: black 40%, brown 28%, …
Heller (1989)

‘Critical situation’ and colour in Germany

Critical situation: black 35%, grey 18%, brown 14%, …
Heller (1989)

‘Danger’ and colour in Germany

Danger: red 43%, black 24%, orange 12%, …
Heller (1989)

‘Dismissive’ and colour in Germany

Dismissive: black 20%, grey 18%, brown 15%, …
Heller (1989)

‘Elegance’ and colour in Germany

Elegance: black 22%, silver 19%, white 15%, …
Heller (1989)

‘Emptiness’ and colour in Germany

Emptiness: black 37%, grey 21%, white 21%, …
Heller (1989)

‘Eternity’ and colour in Germany

Eternity: white 36%, blue 23%, black 18%, …
Heller (1989)

‘Evil’ and colour in Germany

Evil: black 62%, brown 12%, …
Heller (1989)

‘Expensive’ and colour in Germany

Expensive: gold 61%, silver 15%, black 10%, …
Heller (1989)

‘Hard / Hardness’ and colour in Germany

Hard / hardness: black 43%, blue 15%, silver 12%, …
Heller E. (1989)

‘Immense’ and colour in Germany

Immense: blue 35%, black 22%, white 1§%, …
Heller E. (1989)

‘Independency’ and colour in Germany

Independency: blue 27%, black 10%, gold 9%, …
Heller (1989)

‘laziness’ and colour in Germany

Laziness: brown 42%, grey 22%, black 10%, … (Heller, 1989).

‘Masculinity’ and colour in Germany

Masculinity: blue 35%, black 20%, brown 13%, …
In modern symbolism, blue is the colour of masculinity. The old colour of masculinity is red. The cold, passion-free virtues are part of the male appearance of blue.
(Heller, 1989)

‘Mental concentration’ and colour in Germany

Mental concentration: blue 19%, white 19%, black 13%, gray 13%, …
Heller E. (1989)

‘Numbness’ and colour in Germany

Numbness: grey 26%, black 18%, blue 11%, …
Heller E. (1989)

‘Something great’ and colour in Germany

Something great: black 23%, blue 18%, white 13%, …
Heller E. (1989)

Black and dirty

Linguistically, ‘black’ is related to the Latin sordidus, which means dirty, mean and nasty.
Heller (1989)

Black and individuality

Whoever wants to show his individuality wears black. A black dress or a black suit has a distant effect. Black gives the wearer its dignity or at least unapproachability. The black clothing from the Reformation concentrated the appearance of a person on the face, the center of individuality. The existentialism around 1950 became a fashion phenomenon. The Sartre supporters wore black. As a colour of detachment, black clothing is popular with all groups that place themselves outside the crowd and do not want to adapt. Nozems, rockers or punks: the names change, but the favorite colour remains black.
Heller (1989)

Black and negative feelings

All negative feelings are still associated with black. Gray, the colour of sadness, in combination with black, characterizes negative feelings that are more directed against themselves than at others.
Heller (1989)

Black and stiff

The black gown is the gestation of all civil authorities. The painting De Staalmeesters by Rembrandt (1662) shows the stiff bourgeois and rich merchants in black clothing.

Heller (1989)

Black, the end and death

The end of all things is black. Decayed meat turns black, decayed plants and dead teeth turn black. Whoever sees black from hunger, almost dies from hunger. Grim Reaper and the executioner wear black because they sow death and destruction. The painter Kandinsky described black as: “And like a nothing without possibility, like a death nothing after the sun has died out, like an eternal silence without a future and hope, black sounds inwardly.”
Heller (1989)

Colour weight and synaesthesia

T-tests indicated that black was judged significantly heavier than the modulus assigned to white. Apparent weight is a decreasing non-linear function of value. Value and chroma are the major determinants of colour weight. Apparent weight is a decreasing function of value and an increasing function of chroma. These results support the earlier qualitative findings that “dark” colours appear heavier than “light” colours, while providing quantitative meaning to the terms dark and light. The reason that colours appear to have different weights is not clear. Bullough (1907) first offered the reasonable suggestion that the apparent density of colours determines their apparent weight just as the actual density of objects determines their physical weight. Colour weight would then be another example of a synesthetic interaction between sense modalities, in this case between vision and kinesthesis (see Marks, 1975). According to this scheme. hue, value. and chroma would interact to determine colour density; then colour density would determine colour weight by a process of synesthesia. An appropriate test of this model would involve sensory scaling of the various attributes of colour. (Alexander & Shansky, 1976)

Colour weight on the lightness axis

Black and white are the most extreme examples of heavy and lightweight colours. The movement is in the height. Heavy colours, when applied above the viewer, tend to press down. Because of their heaviness, the weight is literally felt. A black ceiling will be estimated lower than a white one. Heavy is also connected to hard and large, while lightweight is felt rather fine, small and soft (Osgood, 1957). If colours have the same intensity such as red and green, red will outweigh green. (Meerwein, 2007)

Good and bad in Slavic religions
Day and Night (Belobog and Chernobog) by Maxim Sukharev (Максим Сухарев)

“They also worshipped the sun and the moon and two gods to whom they assigned a higher value than to other gods. One they called Bialbug – that is the white god, believing him to be a good god, the other Zernebug – that is the black god, believing him to be a god who did harm. Therefore, they honored Bialbug so that he should do them good, and Zernebug so that he should not harm them … “. This passage contains the strongest assertion yet about the Slavs’ dualism of worship – a clear statement of the supremacy of the two gods as distributors of good and ill fortune, worshipped above all other gods. There is no reason to doubt that an ancient conception of a dualistic origin of the world did underlie the fundamental beliefs of the early Slavs and that the two deities mentioned by Helmold reflect this opposition. We are inclined to believe that Chernebog does echo the existence of an old khtonic god, possibly the same as VolosNeles, and need no longer be expelled from the Slavic pantheon. However, the limited amount of comparatively late historical and ethnographic material does not allow us to assert that the early Slavs – centering their religious beliefs around the worship of two opposing deities, hypostatized as a black and a white god – reached a level of religious dualism that can be viewed as a religio-historical phenomenon. (ZNAYENKO, 1993)

Heavy, tight and hard

Rooms painted black appear much smaller than white ones. Black furniture dominates the space. In the most positive case they appear representative, in the most negative case they are oppressive. A black sofa appears to be harder than a white one. Colours influence the impression one gets of size, weight and material. Boxes with a light colour will be assessed less heavily than dark ones. The impression of the weight is not only due to the colour. The material usually gives the deciding factor. Every effect is the sum of all experiences.
(Heller, 1989)

The colour of ‘dangerous’ in 9 countries


All countries: red.
Jung et al. (2018)

The youth chooses black

They are mostly teenagers who like black.
Heller (1989)