111-spiritualHeaven is a worldwide symbol of spirituality and positivism. Yellow is the colour that is associated with this core image in its meaning. The high heaven is the place where the gods live and from where the world was created. You hear little bells tinkle, or the sound of a harp. An unreal immaterial world in which you have to believe and look up with reverential respect. It stands for the maximum that man can achieve.

Heaven is also the firmament, a construction of seemingly eternal rotating planets around the sun, which indicates time on earth. In heaven there is an energy, fast like lightning. It feels sharp and wakes up, like the prick of a needle, the rattle of the alarm clock or the flickering and blinking of a lamp. It makes curious so to come near.

The concept is expansive and directed outward with the consequence of superficiality. Finally, the view is synthesis from above, a simplification of the facts.



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‘Activity’ and colour in Germany

Activity: red 28%, orange 18%, yellow 15%, …
Heller (1989)

‘Agressivity’ and colour in Germany

Agressivity: red 50%, black 10%, yellow 10%, …
Heller (1989)

‘Airy’ and colour in Germany

Airy: white 37%, yellow 18%, pink 17%, ….
Heller (1989)

‘Arousal, excitement’ and colour in Germany

Arousal, excitement: red 33%, orange 20%, yellow 13%, …
Heller (1989)

‘Braggery’ and colour in Germany

Braggery: gold 31%, orange 18%, yellow 10%, …
Heller (1989)

‘Childhood’ and colour in Germany

Childhood: pink 34%, green 13%, yellow 9%, …
Heller (1989)

‘Cosiness’ and colour in Germany

Cosiness: orange 22%, yellow 17%, red 13%, …
Heller (1989)

‘Delicate’ and colour in Germany

Delicate: pink 46%, white 20%, yellow 12%…
Heller (1989)

‘Energy’ and colour in Germany

Energy: red 38%, orange 18%, yellow 16%, gold 7%, …
Heller (1989)

‘Extrovert’ and colour in Germany

Extrovert: yellow 24%, gold 24%, orange 19%, red 14%, …
Heller (1989)

Bernard Lahousse Aroma Colours

Bernard Lahousse Aroma Colours

Yellow and green are the colours most associated with sour taste.
Green and – in a lesser degree – brown are the colours most associated with bitter taste.
Pink – and in lesser degree – red/orange are the colours most associated with sweet taste.
Blue and white/grey are the colours most associated with salty taste.
Bernard Lahousse (2015).

Cold and warm colours

The distinction between cold and warm colours is very old, rooted in the language about colours (Berlin & Kay, 1969) and is perceptually important. Psychological research at the University of Padua into the cold / warm qualities of colours shows that the subjective colour temperature experience changes abruptly when the limit of the hue values ​​above 120° in the CIELAB colour system has been exceeded. The same sudden change occurs around 330° (da Pos & Valenti, 2007). A clear correlation has been established between cold / warm and hue values ​​(Jin, Eun & You, 2003). This agreement also appears to work cross-culturally (Sato, Xin & Hansuebsai, 2003). The cold / warm contrast is related to the perceived light in a landscape. The “warm” colours are associated with daylight or sunset, and the “cold” colours associated with a gray or dark day. Warm colours are the shades of red-violet to yellow, cool colours are the shades that run from blue-green through blue-violet.

Colour and aggressive sexual offences

Above average red scores have been found in men who have committed aggressive sexual offences (Siedow, 1958), while high yellow scores have been found in high performers and goal directed subjects. Thus preference for red seems to be associated with uncontrolled acting out behavior, while preference for yellow goes along with out-going but well-controlled modes of expression.
(Schaie, K. W., 1966)

Colours and arousal value

It has been noted that the colours on the red end of the spectrum (red, yellow) have high arousal value while those at the blue end (blue, green) have low arousal value.
(Schaie, K. W., 1966)

Extrovert people colour preference

Extrovert people seem to have a preference for red, orange and yellow.
Heller E. (1989)

Lüscher’s active and passive colours

The psychologist Lüscher (1969) uses the parameter active/passive in his well-known colour test. The active colours are then yellow and red, the passive blue and green. Passivity means rest and the general decline of metabolic processes and glandular function. Activity accelerates the metabolic process and gland function increases. Primitive peoples showed a number of basic behaviours. The active primitive man was a hunter, his activity was focused on conquest and obtaining. A passive behaviour was self-preservation, defence, withdrawal.
(Lüscher & Scott, 1969).

Unique hue

Colour naming, unique hues, and hue cancellation predicted from singularities in reflection properties. Mean research results: Unique yellow: 577nm; Unique red: 715nm; Unique Blue: 474nm; Unique green: 529nm. (Philipona & O’Regan, 2006)

Warm and cold colours, cultural differences

Culturally, small variations in the choice of warm and cold colours have been identified. In the Thai survey (Sato, Xin & Hansuebsai, 2003), the cold shades are slightly cooler than the Japanese ones. The Thai warmest colour is a warm orange (red-orange) and the coldest colour a bluish green. The border colours between warm and cold, eg. the transitional nuances between yellow and green gave rise to unclear results.