‘Friendliness’ and colour in Germany

Friendliness: blue 20%, rose/pink 13%, yellow 11%, white 11%, …
Heller E. (1989)


Cooperativeness quantifies the extent to which individuals conceive themselves as integral parts of human society, and corresponds with the psychoticism trait.

Low in cooperativeness: aggressively self-centred and hostile, intolerant, callous, unhelpful, and vengeful. intolerance, social disinterest, unhelpfulness, revengefulness, self-advantage.

High in cooperativeness: agreeable in their relations with other people, socially tolerant, empathic, helpful, and compassionate, unconditional acceptance of others, empathy with others’ feelings and willingness to help without a desire for selfish domination. Social acceptance, Empathy, Helpfulness, Compassion, Principles. Highly cooperative persons are described as empathic, tolerant, compassionate, supportive and principled. These features are advantageous in teamwork and social groups, but not for individuals who prefer to live in a solitary manner.
(Cloninger, 1994)

Friend and man, cultural differences in concept allocation

Some of the differences in concept allocation are suggestive of real culture differences; for example: both friend and man are good-strong-active (Osgood’s 3-factors) for Americans and Japanese, but passive for the Flemish and weak for the Finns.

Osgood (1964)

Novelty Seeking

Novelty Seeking reflects a heritable bias in the initiation or activation of appetitive approach in response to novelty, approach to signals of reward, active avoidance of conditioned signals of punishment, and skilled escape from unconditioned punishment.

High Novelty Seeking: Impulsiveness, impulsive decision making, Impulsive sensation seeking, Extravagance, extravagance in approach to reward cues, quick loss of temper, avoidance of frustration, Exploratory excitability, Disorderliness. They are observed as exploratory activity in response to novelty, impulsiveness, extravagance in approach to cues of reward, and active avoidance of frustration. Individuals high in Novelty Seeking are quick-tempered, curious, easily bored, impulsive, extravagant, and disorderly.

Persons low in Novelty Seeking are slow tempered, uninquiring, stoical, reflective, frugal, reserved, tolerant of monotony, and orderly.
(Cloninger, 1994)

The colour of ‘friendly’ in 9 countries


Light and chromatic colours. Different hues.
Jung et al. (2018)