Basic principles of the personality parameters in KHNUM

The basic principles of the personality parameters in KHNUM are mainly based on the personality theory of the English psychologist Hans Jurgen Eysenck, that of C. Robert Cloninger, the American psychiatrist and geneticist, and to research performed by Inez Michiels. Both Eysenck and Cloninger base their results on evolutionary, neurobiological and genetic grounds and their research is therefore suitable for integration within the genetic semantics classification system.

Eysenck’s personality model is based on characteristics that he believes were hereditary. “constitutional, genetic, or inborn factors, which are to be discovered in the physiological, neurological, and biochemical structure of the individual” (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1985). He strongly advocates that there are only three major dimensions or superfactors in the description of personality: extraversion-introversion; emotional stability versus instability, or neuroticism; and psychoticism versus impulse control. He saw a biological explanation for personality, he linked different body processes to his dimensions. For example the effect of neurotransmitters such as dopamine.

Cloninger developed the temperament and character inventory (TCI). TCI operates with four so-called temperaments: Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence, Persistence and three so-called characters: Self-Directedness, Cooperativeness, Self-Transcendence. The TCI is closely related to the dimensions of personality in Eysenck’s models and an outgrowth of the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ), and it has also been related to Zuckerman’s alternative five and and those of the BIG FIVE.

Michiels studied the connection between bi-polar colour choices and personality measured through the Five-Factor model of personality (Big Five).


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