BUILDING BLOCK dimensional to 8-level
The degree of disorder or order is linked to sadness or happiness (Osgood, 1957). Jesús Ibáñez (2010) from the Pompeu Fabra University in Spain has done research on the connection between the emotions pleasant / unpleasant and the degree of symmetry in a composition. The use of symmetry to describe intrinsic attractiveness or rejection has been inspired by recent studies in which it has been established that perception of symmetry in the human face and health are linked to each other. Johnston (2007) states that symmetry is an indication of immunology. The less asymmetry in a human body, the better the immune system. That would be the reason why we are attracted by symmetrical people. The increase of asymmetry, and thus of aversion, described in the Ibáñez study, manifests itself mainly in the degree of rotation of the lines in the composition, and in the difference in length of the lines.
Mehrabian (1987; 1991) developed eight basic temperaments and their variations, defined in the PAD-model (Pleasure, Arousal, Dominance).
exuberant +P+A+D vs. bored -P-A-D
dependent +P+A-D vs. disdainful -P-A+D
relaxed +P-A+D vs. anxious -P+A-D
docile +P-A-D vs. hostile – P+A+D
- Exuberant= + Pleasure, + Arousal, + Dominance. Related emotions are extrovert, outgoing, happy, social.
- Bored = – Pleasure, – Arousal, – Dominance. Related emotions are sad, lonely, socially withdrawn, physically inactive.
- Dependent = + Pleasure, + Arousal, – Dominance. Related emotions are attached to people, helpless, interpersonal positive and social.
- Disdainful = – Pleasure, – Arousal, + Dominance. Related emotions are jealous, loner, withdrawn and calculated, sometimes anti-social.
- Relaxed = + Pleasure, – Arousal, + Dominance. Related emotions are comfortable, confident, self-assured, able to withstand stress.
- Anxious = – Pleasure, + Arousal, – Dominance. Related emotions are worried, nervous, insecure, tense, unhappy, easily sick.
- Docile = + Pleasure, – Arousal, – Dominance. Related emotions are pleasant, unemotional, indulgent, kind, behave appropriately.
- Hostile = – Pleasure, + Arousal, + Dominance. Related emotions are angry, negative emotional, possibly violent.
“In 1978 psychologist John Bassili conducted an experiment in which he painted the faces and necks of several actors and actresses black and then applied one hundred luminescent dots. Participants were then asked to assume different expressions, such as ‘happy’, ‘sad’, ‘surprised’, and ‘angry’. In the final video recording, with only the luminescent dots visible, the outcome was quite revealing: while expressions of anger showed acute downward V shapes (angled eyebrows, cheeks, and chin), expressions of happiness were conveyed by expansive, outward curved patterns (arched cheeks, eyes, and mouth). In other words, happy faces resembled an expansive circle, while angry faces resembled a downward triangle.”
Lima, M. (2017)
Pleasure-displeasure is a feeling state that can be assessed readily with semantic differential measures or with behavioral indicators such as smiles, laughter, and in general, positive versus negative facial expressions. The latter can be reliably scored on a dimension of pleasantness, which is independent of both their aroused and dominant-submissive quality, and thus provide an important behavioral index, particularly in social interaction. Within the present conceptualization, pleasure is distinguished from preference, liking, positive reinforcement, or approach-avoidance. These latter responses have been shown to be affected not only by pleasure, but by arousal and dominance as well. To take one example, Evans and Day (1971) found that looking time at (an approach response to) polygons correlated with their arousing quality but not with pleasure or dominance. The three emotional responses were measured by ratings on semantic differential scales.
Mehrabian & Russell (1974)