BUILDING BLOCK dimensional to 8-level


Effect of horizontality and verticality

Simonds (1983) connects horizontality in landscapes with a positive feeling that has a calming effect. Horizontality as a sign of the ‘good life’. While verticality of composition, goes mentally deeper and shows more suited for serious subjects.


Pleasure-displeasure is a feeling state that can be assessed readily with semantic differential measures or with behavioral indicators such as smiles, laughter, and in general, positive versus negative facial expressions. The latter can be reliably scored on a dimension of pleasantness, which is independent of both their aroused and dominant-submissive quality, and thus provide an important behavioral index, particularly in social interaction. Within the present conceptualization, pleasure is distinguished from preference, liking, positive reinforcement, or approach-avoidance. These latter responses have been shown to be affected not only by pleasure, but by arousal and dominance as well. To take one example, Evans and Day (1971) found that looking time at (an approach response to) polygons correlated with their arousing quality but not with pleasure or dominance. The three emotional responses were measured by ratings on semantic differential scales.

Mehrabian & Russell (1974)

Proverbs and sayings: equal/disunity

Lakoff and Johnson (1999) saw that there are many proverbs and sayings that have to do with form characteristics and emotions. Parallel / equal movement / oneness: togetherness, concomitant, positive, appropriate, power, strong, suitable, assisted, helped. Perpendicular / disunity: wrong, not combining, opposing, less strong, hindering.

Proverbs and sayings: up/down

Lakoff and Johnson (1999) saw that there are many proverbs and sayings that have to do with form characteristics and emotions. Upwards / rising / increasing: becoming important, conceited, richer, making things positive. Downwards / falling / getting smaller: worsen, giving up, no chance, despondent, making things negative, poorer.

Up/down arm movements and emotional expression

De Meijer (1989) investigated the relationships between characteristics of arm movements and emotional expression. He concluded that positive emotions (such as happiness) could be linked to upward movements. Negative emotions (such as anger and sadness) could be linked to downward movements.

Word choice and extraversion

Extroverts use less words that express negative emotions, and more words about friends and family. A report of an event will be presented subjectively and with its own interpretation. Extroverts use relatively more adjectives to describe behavior and less concrete descriptive action verbs. They often have lively and cheerful conversations in which they discuss multiple topics in a loose way. Extraverts process information in a global way. A looser way of looking at the world is related to a large degree of interpretation. They speak and respond more quickly in a conversation, but they are less scrupulous about the facts.

While introverts will provide a concrete and factual description, with fewer adjectives and more descriptive action words. They are often more serious in conversations, and focused on one subject. They process information precisely and focused. Introverts thinks well before they speak. This also fits with slower speaking, more frequent breaks and more precise formulation.
Beukeboom (2011)