BUILDING BLOCK dimensional level


BUILDING BLOCK 8-level to 64-level


‘Easy-going’ and colour in Germany

Easy-going: brown 39%, …
Heller (1989)

‘Protection’ and colour in Germany

Protection: brown 24%, red 18%, pink 15%, … (Heller, 1989)

Blue hour

The ‘blue hour’ is popular in America and England. It is the hour after the end of the work, the time of relaxation. … Blue is the withdrawn, self-satisfied aspect of relaxation.
Heller (1989)

Circumplex model of core affect with product relevant emotions

Desmet, 2007; adapted from Russell, 1980.

Note from the DSD editorial: The eight core affects that are brought together according to two dimensions of emotion: Arousal and Valence, can be divided over the eight primary colour codes according to the method of the Semantic Colour Space. If we assume that the semantic depth dimension corresponds to Valence, and the breadth to Arousal, the following connections may be laid:
(V-,A-) boredom, sadness, isolation: code 010 or 000, green or blue.
(V-,A0) disappointment, contempt, jealousy: code 000 or 010, blue or green.
(V-,A+) alarm, disgust, irritation: code 001 or 011, black or purple.
(V0,A+) astonishment, eagerness, curiosity: code 011 or 111, purple or yellow.
(V+,A-) satisfaction, softened, relaxed: code 100 or 110, brown or white.
(V0,A-) awaiting, deferent, calm: code 110 or 010, white or green.
(V+,A0) admiration, fascination, joyfulness: code 111 or 101, yellow or red.
(V+,A+) inspiration, desire, love: code 101 or 111, red or yellow.

The height dimension, with dominance as the emotional 3rd dimension, was not applied in Desmet and Hekkert’s research.

Eight basic temperaments and their variations

Mehrabian (1987; 1991) developed eight basic temperaments and their variations, defined in the PAD-model (Pleasure, Arousal, Dominance).
exuberant +P+A+D vs. bored -P-A-D
dependent +P+A-D vs. disdainful -P-A+D
relaxed +P-A+D vs. anxious -P+A-D
docile +P-A-D vs. hostile – P+A+D

  • Exuberant= + Pleasure, + Arousal, + Dominance. Related emotions are extrovert, outgoing, happy, social.
  • Bored = – Pleasure, – Arousal, – Dominance. Related emotions are sad, lonely, socially withdrawn, physically inactive.
  • Dependent = + Pleasure, + Arousal, – Dominance. Related emotions are attached to people, helpless, interpersonal positive and social.
  • Disdainful = – Pleasure, – Arousal, + Dominance. Related emotions are jealous, loner, withdrawn and calculated, sometimes anti-social.
  • Relaxed = + Pleasure, – Arousal, + Dominance. Related emotions are comfortable, confident, self-assured, able to withstand stress.
  • Anxious = – Pleasure, + Arousal, – Dominance. Related emotions are worried, nervous, insecure, tense, unhappy, easily sick.
  • Docile = + Pleasure, – Arousal, – Dominance. Related emotions are pleasant, unemotional, indulgent, kind, behave appropriately.
  • Hostile = – Pleasure, + Arousal, + Dominance. Related emotions are angry, negative emotional, possibly violent.
Harm Avoidance

Harm Avoidance involves a heritable bias in the inhibition of behaviour in response to signals of punishment and frustrative non-reward. The trait is related to neuroticism.

People low in Harm Avoidance are carefree, courageous, energetic, outgoing and optimistic even in situations that worry most people.

High Harm Avoidance: Anticipatory worry, excessive worrying, pessimism, Shyness with strangers, shyness, Fear of uncertainty, Fatigability and asthenia, being fearful, doubtful, easily fatigued. It is observed as pessimistic worry in anticipation of problems, fear of uncertainty, shyness with strangers, and rapid fatigability. People high in Harm Avoidance are fearful, socially inhibited, shy, passive, easily tired, and pessimistic even in situations that do not worry other people.
(Cloninger, 1994)

sharp and rounded angles

A sharp angle is associated with ‘shocking’ or ‘exciting’, because of the acute change in the direction of the movement. However, a rounded corner is seen more as ‘relaxed’ (Kreitler and Kreitler, 1972).

Stimulation level and extraversion

Introverts perform better than extraverts under low levels of stimulation but perform worse at high levels of stimulation.
(Eysenck, 1967)