Lakoff and Johnson (1999) saw that there are many proverbs and sayings that have to do with form characteristics and emotions. Large: important, complex, not always better, difficult, rich, distinguished. Small: simple, fine, less important, unobtrusive, poor, submissive, modest.
Simonds (1983) connects a rising composition with optimism, success and happy feelings, falling with pessimism, defeat and depression.
Lakoff and Johnson (1999) saw that there are many proverbs and sayings that have to do with form characteristics and emotions. Upwards / rising / increasing: becoming important, conceited, richer, making things positive. Downwards / falling / getting smaller: worsen, giving up, no chance, despondent, making things negative, poorer.
De Meijer (1989) investigated the relationships between characteristics of arm movements and emotional expression. He concluded that positive emotions (such as happiness) could be linked to upward movements. Negative emotions (such as anger and sadness) could be linked to downward movements.
Osgood (1960) showed with his research that the difference between cultures was not as big as people thought. Participants from three different countries (and cultures) were asked to link emotions to form descriptive words (such as thick, thin, horizontal, vertical, up, down, etc …). It turned out that 90% percent of the links in all … Continue reading cross-culture research
Newly hatched baby chicks peck at photographs of simulated grains, and strongly prefer them if lit as if from above. Turn the photograph over and they shun it. This seems to show that baby chicks 'know' that light in their world normally comes from above. But since they have only just hatched out of the … Continue reading Innate programming of up and down in chicks
One of the main differences between up and down in the world is the predominant direction of light. While not necessarily directly overhead, the sun's rays generally come from above rather than below. This fact opens an important way in which we, and many other animals, can recognise solid three-dimensional objects. It works in reverse. … Continue reading The lighting of up and down
(About the primaeval worm, our ancestor of 590 million years ago.) Why is there a dorsal side and a ventral side? The argument is similar (as with the fore and aft asymmetry), and the one applies to starfish just as much as to worms. Gravity being what it is, there are lots of inevitable differences … Continue reading Up and down in the story of evolution