BUILDING BLOCK dimensional to 8-level


‘Calming’ and colour in Germany

Calming: green 30%, blue 15%, ….
Heller (1989)


Arousal is conceptualized here as a unitary emotional response dimension ranging from sleep to frantic excitement. This dimension is readily assessed with semantic differential measures. Data obtained using this technique have shown chat variations in the arousing quality of situations is indeed a primary and unitary factor. Several nonverbal measures have also been identified which are intercorrelated and essentially define a measure of responsiveness or arousal in social situations. These are vocal activity (including positive as well as negative), facial activity (including positive and negative expressions), speech rate, and speech volume. In considering the problems that are associated with physiological measures of arousal, Berlyne (1967) commented, “All this need not worry us unduly, although it certainly calls for circumspection, as long as we regard arousal as a dimension and not as a phenomenon-not, that is, as a process that goes on in one location in the central nervous system” (p. 12).
Thus, even though there is insufficient knowledge of the relations between the primary and secondary physiological measures of arousal (especially over a variety of situations), Berlyne’s (1960) definition of arousal still has considerable heuristic value. Further, as already noted, there is evidence showing a correlation of verbal reports of arousal or activity with physiological indexes of arousal.

Mehrabian & Russell (1974)

Colours and arousal value

It has been noted that the colours on the red end of the spectrum (red, yellow) have high arousal value while those at the blue end (blue, green) have low arousal value.
(Schaie, K. W., 1966)

Eight basic temperaments and their variations

Mehrabian (1987; 1991) developed eight basic temperaments and their variations, defined in the PAD-model (Pleasure, Arousal, Dominance).
exuberant +P+A+D vs. bored -P-A-D
dependent +P+A-D vs. disdainful -P-A+D
relaxed +P-A+D vs. anxious -P+A-D
docile +P-A-D vs. hostile – P+A+D

  • Exuberant= + Pleasure, + Arousal, + Dominance. Related emotions are extrovert, outgoing, happy, social.
  • Bored = – Pleasure, – Arousal, – Dominance. Related emotions are sad, lonely, socially withdrawn, physically inactive.
  • Dependent = + Pleasure, + Arousal, – Dominance. Related emotions are attached to people, helpless, interpersonal positive and social.
  • Disdainful = – Pleasure, – Arousal, + Dominance. Related emotions are jealous, loner, withdrawn and calculated, sometimes anti-social.
  • Relaxed = + Pleasure, – Arousal, + Dominance. Related emotions are comfortable, confident, self-assured, able to withstand stress.
  • Anxious = – Pleasure, + Arousal, – Dominance. Related emotions are worried, nervous, insecure, tense, unhappy, easily sick.
  • Docile = + Pleasure, – Arousal, – Dominance. Related emotions are pleasant, unemotional, indulgent, kind, behave appropriately.
  • Hostile = – Pleasure, + Arousal, + Dominance. Related emotions are angry, negative emotional, possibly violent.
Right turn kissing, link to emotionality

When leaning forward to kiss to a romantic partner, individuals tend to direct their kiss to the right more often than the left. When kissing friends and family, most people lean to the left. Studies were administered in countries with official languages in English (Italy, Canada), Hebrew (Israel), and Arabic (Palestine). They have consistently demonstrated this kissing asymmetry. As for why romantic couples tend to kiss to the right, the researchers think previous research into brain function might hold the answer. Couples entering into new romantic relationships show heightened activity on the left side of their brains, which might guide them to make more rightward kisses. Our brain is split in two: a left and a right hemisphere. Activity in one hemisphere often makes us move in the opposite direction. The emotional center is in the left hemisphere. The stronger your feelings, the more you will move to the right. (Sedgewick & Elias, 2016)